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Cardiovascular
Cardiovascular
Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years.

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The likely causes for the increase in the CVD rates include lifestyle changes associated with urbanization and the epidemiologic and nutritional transitions that accompany economic development. Rapid change in dietary habits coupled with decreased physical activity in India as consequence of urbanisation may partly explain the increase in CVD. Factors strongly associated with dyslipidemia included female gender, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, dysglycemia and hypertension.

Complete cholesterol test — also called a lipid panel or lipid profile — is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body (atherosclerosis). High cholesterol levels usually don't cause any signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool.

Risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease
High cholesterol levels often are a significant risk factor for heart disease.
  • Dyslipidemia: is an abnormal levels of lipids (fats) in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides. Although hyperlipidemia does not cause symptoms, it can significantly increase your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including disease of blood vessels supplying the heart (coronary artery disease), brain (cerebrovascular disease), and limbs (peripheral vascular disease). These conditions can in turn lead to chest pain, heart attacks, strokes, and other problems.
  • Diabetes mellitus, type 1 and 2 : American Heart Association considers diabetes as one of the seven major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney disease
  • Family history of coronary disease at a young age in a parents or sibling (young, in this case, means younger than 55 years for men and younger than 65 years for women)
Cardiovascular
Blood Tests to Manage Heart Health

There are many different types of lipid (also called lipoproteins).
Blood tests can measure the level of your lipoproteins. The standard lipid blood tests include a measurement of total cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and HDL (high density lipoproteins), and triglycerides.

Total Cholesterol (TC)

Directly linked to risk of heart and blood vessel disease.

Cholesterol is a type of fat, found in your blood. It is produced by your body and also comes from the foods you eat (animal products). Cholesterol is needed by your body to maintain the health of your cells. Too much cholesterol leads to Heart artery disease. Your blood cholesterol level is related to the foods you eat or to genetic conditions (passed down from other generations of family members).

Goal values:

  • 75-169 mg/dL for those age 20 and younger
  • 100-199 mg/dL for those over age 21

Test Preparation:

This test may be measured any time of the day without fasting. However, if the test is drawn as part of a total lipid profile, it requires a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check cholesterol levels.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) “Good cholesterol”

High levels linked to a reduced risk of heart and blood vessel disease. The higher your HDL level, the better.

HDL is a lipoprotein (a combination of fat and protein) found in the blood. It is called "good" cholesterol because it removes excess cholesterol from the blood and takes it to the liver. A high HDL level is related to lower risk of heart and blood vessel disease.

Goal value:

  • Greater than 40 mg/dL
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) “Bad cholesterol”

High levels are linked to an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease, including coronary artery disease, heart attack and death.

Reducing LDL levels is a major treatment target for cholesterol-lowering medications.

LDL is a lipoprotein (a combination of fat and protein) found in the blood. It is called "bad" cholesterol because it picks up cholesterol from the blood and takes it to the cells. A high LDL level is related to a higher risk of heart and blood vessel disease.

Goal values:

  • < 70 mg/dL for those with heart or blood vessel disease and for other patients at very high risk of heart disease (those with metabolic syndrome)
  • < 100 mg/dL for high risk patients (e.g., some patients who have multiple heart disease risk factors)
  • < 130 mg/dL for individuals who are at low risk for coronary artery disease
Triglycerides (TG)

Elevated in obese or diabetic patients. Level increases from eating simple sugars or drinking alcohol. Associated with heart and blood vessel disease.

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. The blood level of this type of fat is most affected by the foods you eat (such as sugar, fat or alcohol) but can also be high due to being overweight, having thyroid or liver disease and genetic conditions. High levels of triglycerides are related to a higher risk of heart and blood vessel disease.

Goal values:

  • Less than 150 mg/dl

Test Preparation:

Blood should be collected after a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). For the most accurate results, wait at least two months after a heart attack, surgery, infection, injury or pregnancy to check triglyceride levels.

Follow-up and Monitoring of Abnormal Lipid Levels

AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists) recommends reassessing patients’ lipid status 6 weeks after therapy initiation and again at 6-week intervals until the treatment goal is achieved. Thereafter, AACE recommends that patients be tested at 6- to 12-month intervals. The specific interval should depend on patient adherence to therapy and lipid profile consistency

Take the following steps to manage their cholesterol by making healthy lifestyle choices, such as:

  • Reducing the amount of saturated fat in their diet
  • Eating foods that contain unsaturated fat
  • Eating plenty of high fibre foods; adults should aim for 30g a day
  • Doing around 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity every week
  • Quitting smoking, which can increase the risk of getting heart attacks and strokes.

Screening right from younger ages may help promote lifestyle changes that can prevent or slow atherogenesis

Screening recommendations for Lipid Disorders
  • Reducing the amount of saturated fat in their diet
  • Eating foods that contain unsaturated fat
  • Eating plenty of high fibre foods; adults should aim for 30g a day
  • Doing around 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity every week
  • Quitting smoking, which can increase the risk of getting heart attacks and strokes.

* Increased risk for CVD is defined by risk factors. These include men with diabetes, a family history of heart disease in a close male relative younger than age 50 or a close female relative younger than age 60, a family history of high cholesterol, or a personal history of multiple coronary disease risk factors (e.g., smoking, high blood pressure).

Source: US Preventative Services Task Force 2008

Prevalence

The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor.

The incidence of CAD in young Indians is 12–16%, which is higher than in other ethnic groups worldwide.

BMJ Open 2014; 4:e005346
Cardiovascular

Asian Indians have been found to develop CVD at a younger age than other populations

Approximately, 80% of deaths in patients with diabetes are attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk of developing heart disease or stroke in adults with diabetes is two to four fold higher compared with that of adults without diabetes.

Management of Dyslipidemia

Depending on your Cardio vascular risk category, your physician may suggest a combination of diet and exercise—collectively known as therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC)—to bring your lipid levels within the acceptable range. If your lipid levels are well outside of the acceptable range for your risk category, your physician may also prescribe drug therapy in addition to TLC

Our Cardio Health Check Packages
SRL Diagnostics offers Cardio health check packages that empower your doctors to understand your heart conditions better and advise you the right medicines and lifestyles changes. Go for the one that meets your current health needs and keep your heart in check.
Healthy Heart Package
Diabetes
Blood Sugar Fasting, Plasma, Urine
Heart
Total cholestrol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, HDL/LDL ratio, Total cholestrol/HDL ratio, Triglycerides
Kidney
BUN, Creatinine
Thyroid
T3, T4, TSH
Complete Body Count
RBC Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, mean corpscular volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular hemoglobin Concentration, Red cell distribution width, Platelet Count, Mean Platelet Volume, White blood cell count
Urinalysis
Colour, Appearance, PH, Specific Gravity, Glucose, Protein, Ketones, Blood, Bilurubin, Urobilinogen, Nitrite, WBC, Epithelial cells, RBC, Casts, Crystals, Bacteria
WBC Differential Count
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Basophils
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Healthy Heart Package Advanced
Diabetes
Blood sugar fasting, Plasma, Urine, Mean Plasma Glucose, HbA1c
Heart
Total cholestrol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, HDL/LDL ratio, Total cholestrol/HDL ratio, Triglycerides, High SenstivityTY CRP
Kidney
BUN, Creatinine, Electrolytes(Sodium, Potassium, Chloride)
Thyroid
T3, T4, TSH
Complete Body Count
RBC Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, mean corpscular volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular hemoglobin Concentration, Red cell distribution width, Platelet Count, Mean Platelet Volume, White blood cell count
Urinalysis
Colour, Appearance, PH, Specific Gravity, Glucose, Protein, Ketones, Blood, Bilurubin, Urobilinogen, Nitrite, WBC, Epithelial cells, RBC, Casts, Crystals, Bacteria
WBC Differential Count
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Basophils
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Hypertension Profile
Diabetes
Blood sugar fasting, Plasma, Urine
Heart
Total cholestrol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, HDL/LDL ratio, Total cholestrol/HDL ratio, Triglycerides
Kidney
BUN, Creatinine
Electrolytes
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
Urinalysis
Colour, Appearance, PH, Specific Gravity, Glucose, Protein, Ketones, Blood, Bilurubin, Urobilinogen, Nitrite, WBC, Epithelial cells, RBC, Casts, Crystals
BOOK NOW
Lipid Profile
Diabetes
Blood sugar fasting, Plasma Blood sugar fasting, Urine
Heart
Total cholestrol HDL, VLDL, LDL, HDL/LDL, ratio total cholestr/HDL, ratio triglycerides
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In other words, a combination of healthy diet, physical exercises and regular tests can help you live a Cardio vascular disease-free life or keep your heart in check. For more information on diabetes or its diagnosis, write to us at wxy@srlworld.in