Test Name: ANTI ISLET CELL ANTIBODY
Test Code: 1166
Components: • The test for Anti Islet cell antibodies is useful in classifying the type of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) as type IA and for identifying nondiabetic individuals at risk for developing type 1A DM. • Anti Islet cell antibodies are directed against pancreatic islet molecules. These antibodies include glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) IgG antibodies, anti- insulin antibodies, IA-2/ICA-512. • These antibodies are present in >75% of individuals diagnosed with new-onset type 1A Diabetes mellitus. • In combination with impaired insulin secretion after intravenous glucose tolerance testing, they predict a >50% risk of developing type 1A DM within 5 years.
Test Name: ACETONE, URINE
Test Code: 1336
Components: 1) Acetone along with acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are called as ketone bodies, which are produced from acetyl-CoA generated from fatty acid oxidation. 2) During carbohydrate deprivation states (starvation, frequent vomiting, digestive disturbances), decreased carbohydrate utilization states (untreated Type -I diabetes mellitus), and glycogen storage diseases, the production of ketone bodies increases. 3) During conditions of carbohydrate deprivation / utilization, ketone bodies serve as an alternative source of energy for utilization by the peripheral tissues. However when there is continued excessive production of ketone bodies, it exceeds the ability of the peripheral tissues to oxidize them, resulting in ketoacidosis. Urine Acetone is useful in diagnosis of ketoacidosis
Test Name: C-PEPTIDE
Test Code: 3140
Components: • C-peptide levels are measured, to find if the diabetic patient has type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. • Measuring C-peptide in patients injecting insulin can help to determine how much of their own natural insulin these patients are still producing. • C-peptide is also used for determining the possibility of gastrinomas and used for identifying malingering: hypoglycemia.
Test Name: ANTI INSULIN ANTIBODIES
Test Code: 3191
Components: • Anti insulin antibodies are used to assess the risk, predict onset and diagnose new onset type I diabetes. • Type I diabetes is characterized by autoantibodies against several islet cell antigens including glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), IA-2 and insulin. • Levels are increased in prediabetic (type I) subjects and polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes.
Test Name: GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE (GAD) IgG ANTIBODIES
Test Code: 3193
Components: In vitro qualitative ELISA test for the detection of circulating autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antigen in prediabetic high risk individuals as well as type 1 diabetes
Test Name: FRUCTOSAMINE
Test Code: 3935
Components: Used in the work up of gestational diabetes and in monitoring of diabetes at shorter interval (2-3 weeks)
Test Name: D3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE(RANBUT)
Test Code: 6152
Components: Highly sensitive and linear test for the detection of ketosis. When carbohydrates are not available, fat is utilised for energy production. Metabolism of fatty acids in the liver results in the production of ketone bodies, consisting of acetone (2%), acetoacetate (20%) and D-3 Hydroxybutyrate (78%). Levels of ketone bodies in the blood are elevated (ketosis) when synthesis exceeds breakdown. Very high levels of ketosis can be toxic causing damage to the kidneys and liver. Monitoring for ketosis is important as it has been associated with diabetes, hypoglycaemia and epilepsy. D-3 Hydroxybutyrate is the major ketone body in the blood. The nitroprusside method of ketone detection, used in semi-quantitative dipstick tests (e.g. Ketostix® and Acetest®), detects acetone and acetoacetate, but not D-3 Hydroxybutyrate. During ketosis, D-3 Hydroxybutyrate levels increase more than the levels of acetone and acetoacetate, making D-3 Hydroxybutyrate a more sensitive marker of ketosis. D-3 Hydroxybutyrate is the most stable of the ketone bodies (7 days at +4oC) - acetone and acetoacetate are unstable, so serious errors can arise if analysis is delayed.
Test Name: HAPTOGLOBIN GENOTYPING
Test Code: 7375
Components: For prediction of coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes mellitus
Test Name: HOMA
Test Code: 7561
Components: Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) is a method used to quantify insulin resistance and beta-cell function in suspected type 2 diabetes. This test is useful in assessing metabolic function in prediabetes, metabolic syndrome and PCOS cases. The test can also be used to decide change of therapy for diabetic patients already on oral hypoglycemic agents.
Test Name: ANTI DIURETIC HOROMONE (Vasopressin)
Test Code: 8827
Components: This test is useful for estimation of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [arginine vasopressin (AVP)] is done for the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI), for the differential diagnosis of central DI vs. nephrogenic DI and to diagnose syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion.