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Diseases & Treatment

Diseases & Treatments

Get to know more about some common
diseases and their treatments

Diseases & Treatment


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years.


SRL Diagnostics offer two diabetes health check packages that empower your doctors to understand your diabetes conditions better and advise you the right medicines and lifestyles changes. Go for the one that meets your current health needs and keep your diabetes in check.

BMI Test

Body Mass index (BMI) is used to give you an idea of whether you're underweight, overweight or an ideal weight for your height.

It's useful to know because if your weight increases or decreases outside of the ideal range, your health risks may increase.

Blood Sugar Test

Blood sugar (glucose) test is a blood test that screens for diabetes by measuring the level of glucose (sugar) in a person’s blood.

It can be an important tool in managing your treatment plan and preventing long-term complications of diabetes like cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.

Cholesterol Test

Cholesterol test is a blood test carried out to measure the levels of total cholesterol found in various lipids (LDL-bad cholesterol, HDL-good cholesterol, VLDL) in the blood.

Evaluation of total cholesterol in conjunction with triglycerides is carried out in order to determine a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke).

Tuberculosis Test

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is spread through the air from one person to another. There are two kinds of tests that are used to determine if a person has been infected with TB bacteria: the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests.

While the former test only tells whether a person has been infected with TB bacteria, the later tells whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. For direct diagnosis of TB, visualization of the bacteria is done in the sample (AFB smear) and the sample is cultured to grow the bacteria in controlled media. Drug susceptibility test of the bacteria can be performed during the culture process. For rapid diagnosis of drug resistant TB (MDR and XDR) an advanced molecular test, Line Probe Assay (Hain test) is available. Several PCR based molecular tests are also available for TB diagnosis. Of late a sensitive WHO endorsed molecular test in the name of GeneXpert has been introduced in the market. The test detects not only Mycobacteria tuberculosis but also drug resistance against rifampicin in a single test.

HbA1c Test

HbA1c test is the gold-standard measurement of chronic glycemia and gives a picture of your average blood glucose (blood sugar) control over a period of 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes.


SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) test also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased due to cirrhosis or hepatitis caused by alcohol, drugs, or viruses.

Osteoporosis Test


Reduced consumption of tobacco and alcoholWeight bearing and resistance exercises


Adequate vitamin D and vitamin k supplementation in post menopausal women. Balanced diet with optimum levels of calcium.


Bisphosphonates are useful in decreasing the risk of future fractures in those who have already sustained a fracture due to osteoporosis. This benefit is present when taken for three to four years under strict medical supervision. Alendronate may decrease fractures of the spine

Teriparatide ( a recombinant parathyroid hormone ) has been shown to be effective in treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.Some evidence also indicates strontium ranelate is effective in decreasing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Hormone replacement therapy, while effective for osteoporosis, is only recommended in women who also have menopausal symptoms.Raloxifene, while effective in decreasing vertebral fractures, does not affect the risk of nonvertebral fracture. Denosumab is also effective for preventing osteoporotic fractures. In hypogonadal men, testosterone has been shown to improve bone quantity and quality, but, as of 2008, no studies evaluated its effect on fracture risk or in men with a normal testosterone levels.Calcitonin while once recommended is no longer due to the associated risk of cancer with its use and questionable effect on fracture risk.


Certain drugs like alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and strontium ranelate can be helpful for the primary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women

Arthritis Treatment

There are several classes of arthritis medications that work to control arthritis symptoms, prevent joint damage, and improve mobility and function. Basically, there are 5 categories of arthritis medications: NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), analgesics (painkillers), corticosteroids, DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs), and the newer biologics

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-pyretic (fever-reducing) properties. The drugs can cause potentially serious side effects. Patients must weigh benefits and risks of taking NSAIDs. Analgesics are a class of drugs used to relieve pain. The pain relief induced by analgesics occurs either by blocking pain signals going to the brain or by interfering with the brain's interpretation of the signals, without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness.

Corticosteroids are drugs closely related to cortisol, a hormone which is naturally produced in the adrenal cortex. However, as the use of corticosteroids expanded over the years, significant side effects emerged. They are still used (orally and by injection) to knock down inflammation.

DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs) appear to decrease inflammation, though they are not categorized as anti-inflammatory drugs. DMARDs slow the disease process by modifying the immune system.

Biologic response modifiers (biologics) stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight disease and/or infection. For example, TNF-alpha is one of the most important cytokines involved in rheumatoid arthritis through its entanglement in the cascade of inflammatory reactions. Pain serves as the signal that something is wrong in the body. Chronic pain can interfere with daily living. It is important to find ways to manage pain and minimize its negative impact. There are both pharmacologic (drug) and non-pharmacologic options to learn about and try. Always consult your doctor before trying a new treatment. In addition to medications, physical exercise and physiotherapy also play a crucial role.

Vitamin D deficiency treatment

The amount of vitamin D that is needed to correct a deficiency will depend on the severity of the deficiency. When the blood level is below 30 ng/mL, a minimum of 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 will be needed for children and 1,500 to 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for adults. Another rule of thumb is for every 1 ng/mL increase in your blood level you need an additional 100 IU/vitamin D per day. A task force for the Endocrine Society reviewed the research and made the following recommendations:

  • For children 1-18 years of age who are vitamin D deficient, we suggest treatment with 2,000 IU/d of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 for at least six weeks or with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 once a week for at least six weeks to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 600-1,000 IU/day.
  • We suggest that all adults who are vitamin D deficient be treated with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 once a week for eight weeks or its equivalent of 6,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 daily to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 1,500-2,000 IU/day.
  • In obese patients, patients with malabsorption syndromes, and patients on medications affecting vitamin D metabolism, we suggest a higher dose (two to three times higher; at least 6,000-10,000 IU/day) of vitamin D to treat vitamin D deficiency to maintain a 25(OH)D level above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 3,000-6,000IU/day.

For optimal absorption, you want to take your supplement with the meal that contains the most fat. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and requires fat for absorption. A recent study instructed people to take their supplement with their largest meal (typically the one with the most fat), and in three months, their blood levels went up an average of 56.7%.

Autoimmune Diseases

Your body's immune system protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake.

Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body.

No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases.

There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases, and if so, which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. Often, the first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever.

The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling.

Immune system diseases

The job of the immune system — which is a collection of structures and processes within the body — is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body’s own healthy tissue.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.

Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is not as strong as normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.

In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or through the use of immunosuppressive medication.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign bodies.

Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1 and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Asthma and allergies also involve the immune system. A normally harmless material such as grass pollen, food particles, mold or pet dander is mistaken for a severe threat and attacked.

While symptoms of immune diseases vary, fever and fatigue are common signs that the immune system is not functioning properly.

CBC Test

Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia.

It measures red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets along with average red blood cell size (MCV), hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH), and amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC)


Thyroid diseases are one of the commonly occurring endocrine disorders worldwide. Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck below the Adam's apple.

ESR Blood Test

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is a blood test that measures inflammation or abnormal proteins in the body.

While ESR is not an indication of any one disease, it commonly increases with any condition that causes inflammation, such as infection, arthritis, or cancer.

ECG Test

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the heart's electrical activity. ECG is used to detect and study many heart problems, such as heart attacks, arrhythmias, and heart failure along with other disorders that affect heart function.

Urine Test

Urine test checks different components and properties of urine. It provides information to assist in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of a wide range of diseases.

It can determine whether or not a woman is ovulating or pregnant. Urine can also be tested for a variety of substances relating to drug abuse.

Cortisol Test

Cortisol test is done to measure the level of the hormone cortisol in the blood. It is done to find problems of the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, such as making too much or too little hormones.

TMT Test

Treadmill testing (TMT) or cardiac stress testing is a non-invasive test done to find the stress on the heart. It involves recording the 12-lead ECG before, during, and after exercise on a treadmill for diagnosis of subclinical or latent ischaemia (decrease in blood supply to organs).

TB Treatment

With appropriate antibiotic treatment, TB can be cured in most people. Successful treatment of TB depends on close cooperation between patients and healthcare providers. Treatment usually involves taking several antibiotic drugs for at least 6 months and sometimes for as long as 12 months.

Antibiotic Resistance and the Importance of Finishing the TB Medicine

People who do not take all the required medicines can become sick again and spread TB to others. Additionally, when people do not take all the prescribed medicines or skip times when they are supposed to take them, the TB bacteria evolve to outwit the TB antibiotics. Soon those medicines no longer work against the disease. If this happens, the person now has drug-resistant TB. Additionally, some people with TB do not get better with treatment because their disease is caused by a strain of the TB bacterium that is already resistant to one or more of the standard TB drugs.

Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is TB that is resistant to at least two of the best Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. These antibiotics are considered first-line drugs and are the first medicines used to treat all persons with TB disease. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB) is a relatively rare type of TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (such as amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin). Worldwide, TB drug resistance is on the rise. In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 650,000 people have MDR TB.

Treatment for Drug Resistant TB

Treatment for drug-resistant TB often requires the use of special TB drugs, all of which can produce serious side effects. People with MDR TB may have to take several antibiotics, at least three to which the bacteria still respond, every day for up to two years. Even with this treatment, however, between 4 and 6 out of 10 patients with MDR TB will die, which is the same rate seen with TB patients who are not treated. Because XDR TB is resistant to first-line and second-line drugs, patients are left with limited treatment options that are much less effective.

Infection Control

ospitals and clinics take precautions to prevent the spread of TB, which include identifying patients with suspected TB and using ultraviolet light to sterilize the air, special filters, and special respirators and masks. In hospitals, people with TB are isolated in special rooms with controlled ventilation and airflow until they can no longer spread TB bacteria. By having an infection control plan in place, healthcare settings can ensure the prompt detection and treatment of persons who have suspected or confirmed TB disease

Chicken Pox Treatment


Patients with chicken pox typically have viral-type, prodromal symptoms such as headache, fever, fatigue, and muscle aches. These symptoms can be treated with acetaminophen (Tylenol) with doses determined by the weight of the patient. Children should never be given aspirin or medications containing aspirin for chicken pox or any other viral illness because of the risk of Reye's syndrome.

Soothing Baths

Frequent baths are sometimes helpful to relieve itching. Adding finely-ground (colloidal) oatmeal such as Aveeno can help improve itching. Oatmeal baths can be prepared at home also by grinding or blending dry oatmeal into a fine powder and adding about 2 cups to the bath water. One-half to one cup of baking soda may also be added to bath water to reduce itching.


The most common lotion used for chicken pox is Calamine lotion. This or any similar over-the-counter preparation can be applied to the blisters to help dry them out and soothe the skin.


Over-the-counter and prescription antihistamines may be used to control severe itching. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is available over-the-counter and hydroxyzine (Atarax) is available by prescription. Both of these antihistamines cause drowsiness and may be helpful at night to help the patient sleep. The newer antihistamines such as loratadine (Claritin), certrizine (Zyrtec), and fexofenadine (Allegra) can be used to control itching but do not cause drowsiness.

Preventing Scratching

Scratching increases the risk of secondary bacterial infections. All patients with chicken pox should have their nails trimmed short. In addition, small children may have to wear mittens to reduce scratching.


Acyclovir (Zovirax) is an anti-viral drug that may be used to treat chicken pox. In uncomplicated cases acyclovir taken 5 times a day has been shown to cause shorter periods of new lesion formation, fewer lesions, and more rapid healing but only if started within 24 to 48 hours of the onset of the rash. Acyclovir has not been shown to decrease the rate of complications in otherwise healthy children who get chicken pox. Oral acyclovir is more strongly recommended for children with underlying skin disease such as eczema, newborns, adults, and smokers since this group is at greater risk for complications. IV acyclovir is used for people with compromised immune systems.

Other Anti-Virals

Currently acyclovir (Zovirax) is the only FDA-approved treatment for chicken pox. However, the antiviral medications valacyclovir (Valtrex) and , used to treat herpes simplex virus infections, have been shown to be effective for chicken pox and are often prescribed.

Brain Tumor Treatment

Brain tumors are treated with surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Before treatment begins, most patients are given steroids and anticonvulsants If hydrocephalus is present a shunt to drain cerebrospinal fluid is needed. Excess fluid is carried away from the brain and is absorbed in the abdomen. In some cases, the fluid is drained into the heart.


Surgery is the usual treatment for most brain tumors. To remove a brain tumor, a neurosurgeon makes an opening in the skull. This operation is called a craniotomy. Whenever possible, the surgeon attempts to remove the entire tumor. If the tumor cannot be completely removed without damaging vital brain tissue, your doctor may remove as much of the tumor as possible. Partial removal helps to relieve symptoms by reducing pressure on the brain and reduces the amount of tumor to be treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Some tumors cannot be removed. In such cases, your doctor may do only a biopsy. A small piece of the tumor is removed so that a pathologist can examine it under a microscope to determine the type of cells it contains. This helps your doctor decide which treatment to use.

Sometimes, a biopsy is done with a needle. Doctors use a special head frame (like a halo) and CT scans or MRI to pinpoint the exact location of the tumor. The surgeon makes a small hole in the skull and then guides a needle to the tumor. Using this technique to do a biopsy or for treatment is called stereotaxis.
Other advanced techniques during surgery include brain mapping to find functional pathways near tumors, endoscopy to perform biopsies and open spinal fluid pathways through a small scope and advanced frameless stereotaxic computer assisted tumor resections. Intraoperative MRI also is available to help maximize tumor removal.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy may be given in two ways. External radiation comes from a large machine. Generally, external radiation treatments are given five days a week for several weeks. The treatment schedule depends on the type and size of the tumor and your age. Giving the total dose of radiation over an extended period helps to protect healthy tissue in the area of the tumor.

External radiation may be directed just to the tumor, the surrounding tissue or the entire brain. Sometimes the radiation is also directed to the spinal cord. When the whole brain is treated, the patient often receives an extra dose of radiation to the area of the tumor. This boost can come from external radiation or from an implant.

Radiation also can come from radioactive material placed directly in the tumor, or implant radiation therapy. Depending on the material used, the implant may be left in the brain for a short time or permanently. Implants lose a little radioactivity each day. The patient stays in the hospital for several days while the radiation is most active.

The Gamma Knife, or stereotactic radiosurgery, is another way to treat brain tumors. The Gamma Knife isn't actually a knife, but a radiation therapy technique that delivers a single, finely focused, high dose of radiation precisely to its target. Treatment is given in just one session. High-energy rays are aimed at the tumor from many angles. In this way, a high dose of radiation reaches the tumor without damaging other brain tissue.


Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The doctor may use just one drug or a combination, usually giving the drugs orally or by injection into a blood vessel or muscle. Intrathecal chemotherapy involves injecting the drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid.

Chemotherapy is usually given in cycles. A treatment period is followed by a recovery period, then another treatment period and so on. Patients often don't need to stay in the hospital for treatment and most drugs can be given in the doctor's office or clinic. However, depending on the drugs used, the way they are given and the patient's general health, a short hospital stay may be necessary.

Advances in chemotherapy include direct placement into the tumor cavity using a new technique called convection enhanced delivery.

Skin Diseases

Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin

  • Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration
  • Keeps harmful microbes out, preventing infections
  • Helps you feel things like heat, cold, and pain
  • Keeps your body temperature even
  • Makes vitamin D when the sun shines on it

Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance.

Osteoarthritis Treatment

Treatment for osteoarthritis comes in many forms - from exercise to surgery. There are several types of osteoarthritis medicines including topical painkillers in form of creams, salves and gels or anti-inflammatory drugs also called NSAIDs.

Knee injections may be able to help reduce osteoarthritis knee pain. Getting a shot of corticosteroids directly into a sore joint can reduce pain and inflammation quickly and effectively. Joint replacement or other surgical procedures are sometimes considered the “treatment of last resort” for people with osteoarthritis.

Fibrometer Test

Echosens Fibro meter Virus is for Early Screening of Liver Fibrosis in patients infected with Viral Hepatitis. Among available non-invasive tools, Echosens Fibrometer Virus has been extensively evaluated through robust clinical studies and has demonstrated highest possible accuracy in assessing liver damage i.e. fibrosis or cirrhosis. This test provides a safe and convenient means for two clinically relevant end points: detection of significant fibrosis (indication for antiviral treatment) and detection of cirrhosis (screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma). It is the only available non-invasive test which provides quantitative estimate of fibrosis staging, thereby providing opportunity for serial monitoring of fibrosis in suspected cases. Viral Hepatitis patients with or without HIV co-infection are ideal candidates for this test and can consider it after appropriate consultation with treating clinician.

Echosens Fibrometer Virus is based on seven biochemical markers along with patient demographic details. Proprietary algorithm developed by Echosens scientists enables fibrosis score calculation which correlates with the standard scoring system (METAVIR). With 100% specificity for cirrhosis, this test is expected to be a perfect fit for excluding cirrhosis (end stage liver damage) in chronic viral hepatitis patients.

Test code Test Name Price Method Sample Volume Temp Frequency Reporting
4590 Fibrometer Virus 3450 Biochemistry/hematology Serum-4ml-ambient, Citrated plasma-2 ml frozen, EDTA Whole blood-3ml-ambient Monday, Friday 10AM 4 days